Leaf litter decomposition- process where insect and miccrobial decomposer turn dead leaves into energy for forests. Free Ions are released from organically bound nutrients, then plants drink them up.
The Southern Pine Beetle is a little bitty critter with a big impact. They burrow s shaped tunnels for eggs under tree bark and carry fungi that blog up the water transport in trees all that eventually kill Pine trees. They have cleared acres and acres of these trees in GA.